Unemployment – Stigma of India
Unemployment – “Stigma of India” “The hardest work in the world is being out of work” - Whitney Young.
Unemployment in India a hot topic these days as election is around the corner “talk of the electoral parties” to blame others and make their vote. This issue is again making a headline and haunting the nation.
The importance of literacy has been recognized both by the government and the people. People are the wealth of a country but the illiterate people are a burden to the country. Still it is the literate who are mostly unemployed, thousands of well-educated young men and women roam from pillar to post seeking a good job. Education is the passport to a job but this is proving false nowadays. The unemployment problem grows more and more severe each year. The jobs available are quite disproportionate to the large number of educated youths seeking employment.
And in the developing countries like India high youth unemployment is not new. A key reason is the slower hiring compared to the number of job seekers. The slower pace of hiring is due to cautious business sentiments and a moderate economic performance that restrains businesses from expanding their workforce.
Unemployment among young people is one of the contentious political issues as like a viral disease which is spreading with speed and need to be controlled as well as a burden for people living through it. If left unchecked, it will result in serious long-term negative effects.
The alarming rise in youth unemployment with every year and the equally disturbing high number of young people who still live in poverty despite having a job shows how difficult it is to reduce unemployment, unless strong efforts are being made to achieve sustainable economic growth.
Wide disparities between young women and men, underpinning and giving rise to wider gaps during the transition to adulthood, need to be looked at seriously. The labour force participation rate for young men is around 53% compared to 37% for young women – representing a gap of 16 percentage points. Also, high youth unemployment is partly due to many unable to find employment right after they leave school or complete tertiary education. The last-in, first-out practice suggests youths are more vulnerable than more mature adults in difficult economic times. They are likely to have less exposure and work experience. Thus, the youth who is entering the market for the first time will be at a disadvantage and have a harder time finding employment compared to an adult with a longer history of work experience. In times of surplus labour when people are competing for a limited number of jobs, the youth will be the “last in”. Again heading to welcome the pass out students of 2019 in this unemployment world. Here it reminds me some lines for unemployed fresher would like to quote: Every Year a fresher’s batch, Hope to be employed like an early hatch. Campus Interviews are held on, Perhaps their Luck will be put on. A percentage of 1 are selected, 99 out of them are rejected, Another Unemployed mass is gathered, To be survived without feather. As per Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) analysis and reports the latest stats are: People with bachelor’s degrees and above account for only 10% of India are total working age population. Among the highly educated 13.2% are unemployed during September-December 2018. Rate of unemployment among women — with bachelor’s and master’s degrees — has been higher than men, at 35%. The mismatch between the skills required for jobs and the levels of skills the young people have when they leave college is one of the main reasons for the high youth unemployment rates. Unemployment Rate in India increased to 3.53 percent in 2018 from 3.52 percent in 2017.
Educational reforms need to be fast to address what is needed in the current job market and what are the skills required. There may be a need for a major overhaul in the education system. The education system should not only depend on the literary and bookish knowledge but more towards the market research, onboard and practical studies so that before entering to the market the youth must have a real image of professional life and industry. Given the lack of viable employment opportunities, a large number of Indians opt for self-employment. And a big chunk of this includes low-paying activities like hawking magazines and flowers at traffic signals. Unemployment is lowest among the illiterate population. That’s because this segment is more willing to work as laborers and in low paid menial jobs. Not surprisingly, youth unemployment is the highest among young graduates, which is a clear indication of the lack of employment opportunities for educated youth. India, therefore, has to take bold steps towards not just creating jobs but creating “quality” jobs. More and more educational institutions, especially medical and engineering colleges are spring up. Every year a relatively a large number of students pass out from these institutions. But providing suitable job positions for most of them is very difficult. When failing to secure a good job many start small businesses. How many have achieved success in business enterprise? Although India’s manufacturing and service sectors have been growing faster than agriculture for many years, they failed to wean people from agriculture at the necessary pace, leading to lopsided employment distribution populations are regular employees. Given the scarcity of opportunities, higher youth unemployment shouldn’t come as a surprise. “The Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)” (2016-20), an initiative of the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE), “(MGNREGA) Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act” are taking bold steps in this direction. However, MGNREGA is not yet been successfully implemented by any states as per RBI report. As per World Bank report India comes up with 8.5mn jobs every year to keep an employment ratio stable and not letting go down but with increasing population and youth in the market the picture doesn’t seems pleasant. The challenge for the government is to ensure that appropriate policies are framed and meticulously implemented to meet the future aspirations of India’s youth. The adverse impact of the global crisis sends out a strong message. On the other side, more emphasis has to be laid on training people based on skills and changing job requirements. Therefore, government and educational bodies need to make out some better schemes for the future India. India has its work cut out.
What is Mobile
Mobile is a wireless handheld device that can be used to make receive call from one place to another. Now a days mobile phones also used to surf internet, broadcast video, image capturing, money transfer, office works and other day to day uses increased day by day.
The first handheld cellular mobile was build by Martin Couper an employees of Motorola in 1973.This mobile weighs 2kg at that time.
The first analogy signal mobile was build in 1979 by Nippon telegraph & telephone in Japan. In 1983 Dyna TAC 8000 X was the first mobile which was available for (2G) public use.
The first GSM mobile was available on 9th November 1992 by Nokia company.
First 3G mobile was launched on 15th October 2001 by NTT Docomo in Japan.
First 4G phone named HTC EVO 4G developed by HTC on 4th June 2010 in USA.
Mobile in India :- In India Mobile was launched on 31st July 1995.First call made by union minister of telecomm inaction Mr. Sukhram of that time to west Bengal chief minister Mr. Jyoti Basu 2G was launched in final and in 1991by Radiolinja .2G came in India as a revolution in the mobile internet.2G spectrum was sold in 2008 in india 3G was launched on 11 December 2008 by MTNL(Maha Nagar Telephone Limited) in Delhi. 4G was launched in Kolkata by Airtel. 5G will be launched by June 2020.
What is Basic Computer Course
This course consisting of basic computer knowledge. In this course we learn about history of computing and fundamentals of computers. We learn about parts of computers and how they operate.We will teach you about various internal and external components of computers. How to boot your computer using operating system. We will teach you about Microsoft office which include MS word, MS Excel , MS PowerPoint ,MS publisher, MS access & more.Watch Video
The first generation of computers consisting of vacuum tubes it resides from 1946 upto 1958. The first generation computers consisting of vacuum tubes was built by J. Eckert & J. Mauchly in 1946.Their constructed machine was called ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer.
This generation computer used vacuum tubes as CPU,punched card,magnetic tapes and paper tapes as input and output devices. Batch operating system useJd in these computers & computers used machine language as programming language. This generation computer produced a lot of heat & need much power supply to operate.
Second Generation Computers
In second generation computers transistors replaced vacuum tubes. Second generation computer resides from 1959 to 1964. The invention of transistor makes computer cheaper,faster,smaller,more efficient and reliable than previous generation computers. Assembly programming languages & high level programming languages appeared in this era. UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer is an example of second generation computer.
Third Generation Computers
In the third generation of computers integrated circuit replaced transistors. A single integrated circuit consisting of many transistors along with registers & capacitors. Third generation of computers resides from 1965 upto 1971.Integrated circuit invented by Jack Kilby. This makes computer small in size, reliable & efficient. Time sharing,multi programming & remote processing operating system were used. High level programming languages were used during this generation. Personal Data Processor is an example of this generation computer.
Fourth Generation Computer
Fourth generation computer involved the invention of microprocessor. These computers used very large scale integrated circuits. These circuits comprised of 5000 transistors on a single chip called microprocessor. The rise of personal computer takes place during this era. Time sharing, real time, network & distributed operating system used in this generation. C, C++ like high level language used in this. This generation is in use from 1980 upto current it still works.
Fifth Generation of Computer
The fifth generation of computer is still in working from 1980.This generation of computers is based on artificial intelligence.
History of Computer
Computer stands for Commonly Operated Machine Particularly Used for Technical and Educational Research.Computer is very useful machine from whiich today hardly any work of life is untouched.In schools,banks,shops,departmental stores,post offices,government offices,reservation counters,hostels and everywhere we find computers.Computers can also be used as embedded machines such as controlled cars,lathe machines,televisions,washing machines,televisions,washing machines and many more.
The first computer built by William Schikard a professor at a University of Tubingen in 1623 but went unnoticed.After that Blaise Pascal invented a computer look like device.This device is like that vehicle's milimeter counter,counter in electric meter or a petrol pump counter.In 1671 German Mathematician Baron Gottfried von Leibniz invented a computer that could handle multiplication and division while Pascal's machine could handle addition and subtraction.In 1833 Charles Babbage proposed the programmable computer & Charles Babbage is considered to be the father of computer.Ada Augusta Lovelace was the first computer programmer.Even the most recent advanced computers inherit some fetaures from Babbage's computers.
Herman Hollarith invented punched card tabulating machine which lead to huge success in 1890 US Census.Hollerith formed Tabulating Machine Company in 1911 renamed as International Business Machines Corporation commonly known as IBM.After that Konrad Zuse a German scientist built a mechanical computer but went unnoticed.Between 1939-1944 IBM built Harward Mark I computer which is electromagnetic and general purpose was designed by American physicist Howard Aiken.In late 1930's John Atanasoff with Clifford Berry built the first elctronic computer was specially built for linear equation problem solving.ENIAC stands for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator built by John Mauchly & J. Presper Eckert.IIts weight was 30 tons and employee more than 18,000 vaccum tubes.Work on ENIAC began in 1943 but it was complete in 1946.First stored program computer EDSAC stands for Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator was built by Maurice Wilkes in 1949 at University of Cambridge.In 1952 John von Neumann built the landmark IAS computer all modern computers use the design of IAS computers.First mini computer arrived in 1960 & in 1963 the first computer designed for high level languages arrived in market.The first supercomputer designed by Seymour Cray & first personal computer arrived in 1974.IBM launched first computer in 1981.Computer makes Indian debut in 1956 nad first supercomputer of India PARAM stands for Parallel Machines built in 1998.
Parts of Computer
Computer is a type of machine which expand day by day hardly any work left undone without computers. The parts of personal computers are stated as follows:-
CPU which is also called central processing unit. CPU is also called brain of computer. The main work of CPU is to follow the instructions of computer programs. CPU components are stated as follows:-
Buttons are used for power on or off.
Reset buttons are used when computer stop responding. Indicating lights are used for defining the condition of computer that its working or not. If light is blue then CPU is on if it is yellow then CPU is not working. Floppy disk drive are the removal disk used for data storage because of the limited abilities floppy disk drive is not in much use today. Floppy disk drive first used in 1971. CD or DVD drive use for operating CD or DVD. In CD limited amount of data is stored & the data is re- writable. CD stands for compact disk started in 1982. DVD stands for digital versatile disk more data is stored as compared with CD. DVD first used in 1985. Sockets are used to connect PC with electricity through you p s. ports are used for connecting any USB devices with computer. Fan is used for cooling down CPU.
Motherboard is used for making communication between CPU & other ports of computer. All works depend on motherboard. BIOS stands for basic input output system, microprocessor, keyboard & monitor's connection to be made inside motherboard.Motherboard started in the 1980s. ROM stands for read only memory.ROM is used for storing data. ROM is divided into following parts:- PROM stands for programmable read only memory the data in PROM is not changed. PROM is first used in 1956. EPROM stands for electrical programmable read only memory the data in this is safe after the electricity is discontinued. EPROM started in 1971. EEPROM electrical erasable read only memory in this data is not safe after the discontinuation of electricity. EEPROM invented in 1983. Flash memory was invented by Dr. Fujio Masuoka in 1984.The name "flash" was suggested by Masuoka's colleague, Shōji Ariizumi which remind him flash of camera both work for Toshiba company. Data can be changed and erased in flash memory. RAM stand for random access memory which stored the data in its existing condition whatever its order after reading. Hard disk consists of the stored data and data can be edited in this. hard disk invented by IBM company in 1954. Monitor is used for displaying output on screen.
Types of Computer
There are four types of computer micro computer mainframe computer mini computer supercomputer micro computers are the most commonly used computers.These computers are called microcomputers because these computers used microprocessors.Microcomputers are small handled in cost.These computers include memory, processors,input & output devices.The term microcomputer first used by Isaic Asamov in 1956 in his short story "The Dying Night".Microcomputers are further classified in various parts such as personal computers,game consoles & programmable calculators.
Personal computers are general purpose computers. Their size,abilites & price makes them useful for individual.These types of computers include software applications such as web browsers,spreadsheet,email clients etc.When computers not having operating system required handloading of bootstrap programs from paper tapes,cassettes etc.Personal computers also classified in various parts.Desktop computers are those computers which could fix on desk.Desktop computers comes in variety of styles.These types of computers have display screen placed on the top of desk to save space.Full form of desktop however not official is distributed enterprise support kit for total optimized power.
Workstation computers are used for scientific,mathematical and technical applications.Workstation computers connected with local area network mostly or run multiuser operating system.Most common use of workstation computer is computer aided design,animation,motion picture & visual effects.Laptop The term laptop is abbreviated as Lightweight analytical platform for total optimized power.Laptop is better option than desktop because of the less power consumption,less weight & portability.Tablet is the modren type of portable computers emphasizes on removal of traditional inputs such as mouse and keyboard with touch screen facility.In car computers are those which is used in car for entertainment & navigation.Game consoles computers are those which is used for entertainment for example video games.
Programmable calculators are specially used for mathematical works.Mainframe computers are the large traditional or institutional computers that service multiple users from smaller to single machine.Mainframe computers capable of handling large data quickly.These computers are used in government sectors, banks & large Corporation etc.Servers are the most common example of mainframe computers.Minicomputers are the mid size computers lie between mainframe computers or workstation computers. A mini computer possess features from large computer but small in size.A mini computer is also called mid ranged computers.Mini computer emerged in mid 1960s first developed by IBM Corporation.Mini computer can handle upto 200 users at one time.A Supercomputer is emphasizes on weather forecasting,fluid dynamics or complex scientific computations etc. Supercomputer is type of computer with great memory or speed.Supercomputers are generally 1000 times faster than personal computers.Supercomputer uses all its power into executing few programs with faster speed.
The working of computer depends on its parts or components which are CPU,hardware,software,input-output devices and operating system etc.Power on your computer after that BIOS screen appears. If their is no operating system than bootstrap your computer.After that open any program.for work.